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It has long been believed that all non-avian dinosaurs were made extinct 65.5 to 66 million years ago when debris from a giant meteorite impact blocked out the sun from the Earth’s atmosphere. The meteorite impact changed the climate of Earth and killed its vegetation and was thought to have killed off most dinosaurs. A new discovery, reported by geology journal, may prove otherwise.

A team of researches from the University of Alberta, led by Larry Heaman from the Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, used Uranium Lead dating (a newer form of dinosaur dating) to determine the age of a hadrosaur femur bone to be 700,000 year after the supposed mass extinction. Heaman has a few different explanations as to how this dino could have escaped extinction; vegetation may not have been killed in all areas of the earth and this species of hadrosaur survived or the eggs of the hadrosaur may have been able to survive the extreme climate change. Heaman and his team plan to test more bones with uranium-lead dating and believe the end date of dinosaurs may have to be revised in the future.

Larry

Larry Heaman with the hadrosaur femur bone fossil

 


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According to National Geographic a group of 23 Mandrill Monkeys at the Colcester Zoo in England have been displaying a learned habit that could prove that monkeys have culture, too! For the last ten years this population of mandrills, regardless of sex and age, have been covering their eyes for up to 30 minutes or more at a time. Scientist cannot be positive but after observation they believe that when the monkeys cover their eyes it is a, “Do Not Disturb,” sign to the other members in the group.

It began with one individual, spread to the others, and has now been passed through one generation of the monkeys. Mark Laidre, an integrative biologist at the University of California, Berkley, has studied this population, 19 other mandrill communities around the world, as well as contacted other long term primate observers, and those studied at the Colcester Zoo are the sole exhibitors of this characteristic. Since the eye covering has been passed through a generation it can be seen as a learned cultural component to this particular group of monkeys!

Mandrill_Monkeys


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If you thought invisible cloaks were just used by Harry Potter, think again.  Two independent research teams have created carpet cloaks that allow you to experience an object vanishing.  The researchers discovered this with the use of crystals, called a calcite prism. The crystals are placed in a precise location so that when the correct light hits the cloak and the crystals' “optical properties” kick in, the object you are viewing disappears before your eyes.

They are currently only able to make smaller objects disappear, such as an ant or piece rice. Scientist still have a lot of work ahead of them in advancing the invisible cloak, making it 3-D and making larger objects disappear, but they are on the right track. Where does the future lead? Instead of hiding objects, scientist would love to reveal them, a new kind of ABRACADABRA!

For more on this amazing work, click here


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Do you ever walk outside in the early mornings and your vision is hazed by fog? Do you ever wonder what exactly fog is? Well, fog is simply a cloud that is in contact with the ground. There are numerous types of fog, but they all have one fact in common: they form when the relative humidity reaches 100% and the dew point drops below the dew point. Here are descriptions of different types of fog as described by World of Earth Science:

Radiation or ground fog is formed after sunset when there is a cooling of the land caused by thermal radiation in calm weather conditions. When the cool ground reaches its dew point, it then produces moisture in the air, which forms into condensation or fog droplets. The fog sometimes boils over to the next morning before the sun has come up to cool ground.

Advection fog forms when warm, moist air horizontally movesover a cold surface, which cools the air to its dew point. It is common along coastlines where moist air moves from over the water to over the land, or when an air mass moves over a cold surface (e.g., snow), and the moisture in the air condenses into fog as the surface cools it..

Evaporation fog forms by the mixing of two unsaturated air masses. This can occur when cold, dry air moves over warmer water. The air, quickly saturated by evaporation and condensation, creating a steam like fog. This most commonly takes place over bodies of waters and can be known as sea smoke.

Precipitation or frontal fog forms as precipitation falls into cool, almost saturated air. This can take place with warm, cold, or stationary fronts

No matter what type of fog is drifting in the air, it is important to always take extra caution when driving. Fog reduces visibility and can be very dangerous, so make sure that you’re light are on and know when the sun come out, there will be a clear day ahead!

Fog

 



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Through generous funding from the Universal Foundation, the Orlando Science Center has been able to create new programming designed to highlight the importance of water conservation and environmental stewardship. The Big Drip, the first of the three programs funded by the Universal Foundation, premiered on January 22 in Dr. Dare's Laboratory.

Guests began the workshop by competing in a water trivia game using Qwizdom paddles. Next, guests examined the effects of pollution by using simulated contaminants to make a mess. Finally, guests were challenged to create their own water filters using everyday materials to see how clean they could get the water.

Check out our website for a schedule of events to see the next time you can experience The Big Drip and other new programs!


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Who says playing with your food can’t be delicious and fun? Stay active inside all winter with this simple recipe for homemade peanut butter play dough. This is perfect for all ages, especially the little kids in the family. Clean up is sure to be a breeze, play and then enjoy! The kids will certainly help with cleaning up this mess.

Ingredients:

3 ½ cups peanut butter

4 cups confectioners’ sugar

3 ½ cups honey

4 cups dry milk powder

Directions:

In a large bowl, cream together peanut butter and confectioners’ sugar, then beat in honey and fold in milk powder. Divide into 15 equal portions and refrigerate or freeze until ready to use.

peanut_butter_playdough


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Volcanic lightning is a phenomenon that happens within a volcano. There are three different types of lightning discharge in a volcano; dirty lightning, small sparks, and vent lightning. Dirty lightning resembles normal lightning and can be seen from far away. Small sparks can only be seen close up. The third kind is vent lightning; this discharge comes directly from the volcano mouth and is approximately two miles long.

Volcanic_Lightning_2

According to Bradley Muller, a professor of Applied Meteorology in the Department of Applied Aviation Sciences at Embry-Riddle Aeronautical , volcanic lightning is believed to be caused by a separation of charges. When one particle with negative charge is separated from the positive charged particle, lightning could develop between those two particles. This is the effect that causes lightning to form within a volcano. These charges develop when different materials rub or collide together; the friction between materials causes the charge itself. The moisture within the volcano can be a factor into whether the volcano gives off lightning. Moisture can affect the electrical resistance in the air and therefore affecting the amount of lightning present in the eruption. The intensity of the eruption also plays a part in the creation of volcanic lightning.

Volcanic_Lightning_1

Volcanic lightning is similar to lightning in a thunderstorm but there are also many defining characteristics that are unique to a volcano, such as the types of electric discharge.


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